Lo único 100% seguro
 

 

La única forma 100% segura de evitar ITS y embarazos no esperados en los jóvenes es la abstinencia sexual.[1],[2],[3]

Diversos estudios científicos demuestran que sí se puede educar a los[4] y las[5] adolescentes en la abstinencia [6],[7] o el retraso del inicio de la vida sexual.[8],[9],[10],[11],[12],[13],[14].

El inicio de la vida sexual a temprana edad, está asociado con el aumento de número de parejas sexuales [15],[16],[17],[18],[19] y como consecuencia con aumento de las ITS,[20],[21],[22] embarazos no esperados,[23],[24] depresión,[25],[26],[27],[28],[29] y suicidios.[30],[31]

Uganda disminuyó 70% el VIH desde el inicio de los años noventas, gracias a la reducción de sexo casual en un 60%, es decir, disminuyendo el número de parejas sexuales[32] y promoviendo la abstinencia; siendo estas estrategias mucho más importantes que la promoción del condón.[33]


 
 


Referencias

[1] Halperin DT, Steiner MJ, Cassell MM, Green EC, Hearst N, Kirby D, et al. The time has come for common ground on preventing sexual transmission of HIV. Lancet 2004; 364:1913-14.

[2] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Treatment Guildelines 2006. www.dcd.gov/std/treatment/2006/ref.htm#ref13.

[3] Potts M, Halperin DT, Kirby D, Widler D, Marseille E, Klausner JD. Reassessing HIV Prevention. Science 2008, 320: 749-50.

[4] Coyle KK, Kirby DB, Marín BV, Gómez CA, Gregorich SE. Draw the Line/Respect the Line: a randomized trial of a middle school intervention to reduce sexual risk behaviors. Am J Public Health 2004; 94:843–51.

[5] Aarons SJ, Jenkins RR, Raine TR, El-Khorazaty MN, Woodward KM, Williams RL, et al. Postponing sexual intercourse among urban junior high school students—a randomized controlled evaluation. J Adolesc Health 2000; 27(4):236-47.

[6] Stammers T. Sexual health in adolescents. BMJ 2007; 334:103-4.

[7] Blake SM, Simkin L, Ledsky R, Perkins C, Calabrese JM. Effects of a parent-child communications intervention on young adolescents' risk for early onset of sexual intercourse. Fam Plann Perspec 2001; 33(2):52–61.

[8] Vigil P, Riquelme R, Rivadeneira R, Aranda W. TeenSTAR: Una opción de madurez y libertad. Programa de educación integral de la sexualidad, orientado a adolescentes. Rev Méd Chile 2005; 133: 1173-82.

[9] Hubbard BM, Giese ML, Rainey J. A replication study of Reducing the risk, a theory-based sexuality curriculum for adolescents. J Sch Health 1998; 68(6):243-7.

[10] O´Donnell L, Stueve A, O´Donnell C, et al. Long-term reductions in sexual initiation and sexual activity among urban middle schoolers in the Reach for Health service learning program. J Adolesc Health, 2002; 31: 90-100.

[11] Denny G, Young M. An evaluation of an abstinence-only sex education curriculum: An 18-month follow up. J Sch Health 2006; 76(8):414-22.

[12] Kirby DB, Laris BA, Rolleri, LA. Sex and HIV education programs: their impact on sexual behaviors of young people throughout the world. J Adolesc Health 2007; 40:206–17.

[13] UNESCO. International Technical Guidance on Sexuality Education.Paris 2009.

[14] Kirby D, Obasi A, Laris BA. The effectiveness of sex education and HIV education interventions in schools in developing countries. World Health Organ Tech Rep Ser 2006; 938:103-50.

[15] Genuis SJ, Genuis SK. Adolescent behaviour should be priority. BMJ 2004; 328:894.

[16] Greenberg J, Magder L; Aral S. Age at first coitus. A marker for risky sexual behavior in woman. Sex Transm Dis 1992; 19:331-34.

[17] Sandfort TG, Orr M, Hirsch JS, Santelli J. Long-Term Health Correlates of Timing of Sexual Debut: Results From a National US Study. Am J Public Health 2008; 98:155–61.

[18] Santelli JS, Brener ND, Lowry R, Bhatt A, Zabin LS. Multiple sexual partners among U.S. adolescents and young adults. Fam Plann Perspect 1998;30:271–5.

[19] Smith CA. Factors associated with early sexual activity among urban adolescents. Soc Work 1997; 42:334–46.

[20] Kaestle CE, Halpern CT, Miller WC, Ford CA. Young age at first sexual intercourse and sexually transmitted infections in adolescents and young adults. Am J Epidemiol 2005; 161:774–80.

[21] Niccolai LM, Ethier KA, Kershaw TS, Lewis JB, Meade CS, Ickovics JR. New sex partner acquisition and sexually transmitted disease risk among adolescent females. J Adolesc Health 2004;34:216–23.

[22] Rosenthal SL, Von Ranson KM, Cotton S, Biro FM, Mills L, Succop PA. Sexual initiation predictors and developmental trends. Sex Trans Dis 2001; 28:527-32.

[23] Smith CA. Factors associated with early sexual activity among urban adolescents. Soc Work 1997; 42:334–46.

[24] Magnusson C, Trost K. Girls experiencing sexual intercourse early: could it play a part in reproductive health in middle adulthood? J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol 2006; 27(4):237-44.

[25] Hallfors DD, Waller MW, Bauer DJ, Ford CA, Halpern CT. Which comes first in adolescence-sex and drugs or depression? Am J Prev Med 2005; 29:163–70.

[26] Lam TH, Stewart SM, Leung GM, Lee PW, Wong JP, Ho LM. Depressive symptoms among Hong Kong adolescents: relation to atypical sexual feelings and behaviors, gender dissatisfaction, pubertal timing, and family and peer relationships. Arch Sex Behav 2004; 33(5):487-96.

[27] Kaltiala-Heino R, Kosunen E, Rimpelä M. Pubertal timing, sexual behaviour and self-reported depression in middle adolescence. J Adolesc 2003; 26(5):531-45.

[28] Sabia JJ, Rees DI. The effect of adolescent virginity status on psychological well-being. J Health Econ 2008;27(5):1368-81.

[29] Khan MR, Kaufman JS, Pence BW, Gaynes BN, Adimora AA, Weir SS, et al. Depression, sexually transmitted infection, and sexual risk behavior among young adults in the United States. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2009; 163(7):644-52.

[30] Hallfors DD, Waller MW, Ford CA, Halpern CT, Brodish PH, et al. Adolescent depression and suicide risk; association with sex and drug behavior. Am J Prev Med 2004; 27(3):224-31.

[31] Rector R, Johnson K, Noyes L. Sexually active teenagers are more likely to be depressed and to attempt suicide. Heritage Foundation Center for data Analysis 2003: Report #03-04. Available at: http://www.heritage.org/Research/Family/cda0304.cfm.

[32] Stoneburner RL, Low-Beer D. Population-level HIV declines and behavioral risk avoidance in Uganda. Science 2004; 304:714–18.

[33] Alonso A, de Irala J. Strategies in HIV prevention: the A-B-C approach. Lancet 2004; 364:1033.

 

 

 

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